Classification of minerals according to Strunz

  1. ElementsThis class includes natural elements that occur in pure form. It includes metals such as gold and silver, semi-metals and non-metals such as diamond. These minerals are particularly valued for their pure occurrence and their use in jewelry and industry.
    • GoldValuable precious metal, often used in jewelry.
    • SilverUsed in both jewelry and industrial applications.
    • CopperImportant for electrical cables, also used in alloys.
    • DiamondExtremely hard material, popular in jewelry and for cutting tools.
  2. Sulphides and sulphosaltsContain sulphide anions. These minerals are often ore minerals from which metals are extracted.
    • PyriteAlso known as fool's gold, important as a source of sulphur.
    • GalenaMost important source of lead ore.
    • ChalcopyriteMost important source of copper ore.
  3. HalidesContain halogen ions. Many are important because of their colors or as raw materials.
    • Halite (rock salt)Important as table salt and in industry.
    • FluoriteUsed in fluoride extraction and as a flux in metallurgy.
  4. Oxides and hydroxidesThis class includes minerals with oxygen ions. They are often important ores or have abrasive properties.
    • RutileMost important source of titanium ore.
    • HematiteMost important iron ore.
    • CorundumBase of ruby and sapphire, used as an abrasive.
  5. Carbonates and nitratesContain carbonate or nitrate groups. Many are important raw materials or are used as gemstones.
    • Calcite: Basic component of limestone, important for cement production.
    • MalachitePopular for jewelry and as an ornamental stone.
    • AzuriteIs often found together with malachite as copper ore and ornamental stone.
  6. BoratesContain borate groups. Important for the production of borax and other boron compounds.
    • BoraxUsed in cleaning agents, as a flux in jewelry production.
  7. Sulfates, chromates, molybdates, tungstatesThis class includes minerals with sulphate groups. Many are useful as pigments or in industry.
    • BariteUsed as barite in the oil and gas industry.
    • Plaster: Base material for plasterboard and stucco.
  8. Phosphates, arsenates, vanadatesContain phosphate, arsenate or vanadate groups. Important for the fertilizer industry or as gemstones.
    • ApatiteMost important source of phosphorus for fertilizers.
    • TurquoisePopular gemstone.
  9. SilicatesThe largest class includes minerals with silicon and oxygen as well as various metals. Many are important as gemstones or in the ceramics industry.
    • FeldsparImportant for the porcelain and glass industry.
    • QuartzUsed in many ways, e.g. in watches, as a gemstone.
    • Amethyst, aquamarine, tourmaline, olivine, topaz, moldavitePopular gemstones.
  10. Organic compoundsMinerals that contain organic compounds. These are rarer and include materials such as amber.
    • AmberFossil resin, popular for jewelry and handicrafts.

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